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Process by which the thread is strengthened as raw material for textile production, by twisting or plying it by hand or with a spindle for that purpose.
Circular, flat piece of wood, ceramic, bone, stone or metal, forming part of the spindle for spinning and plying, serving as the counter-weight for the turning of the spindle and check for the unrolling thread. The disc of the plying spindle, whose turn and weight strengthens the thread by doubling it or multiplying its thickness in the opposite direction to spin; its size and weight can vary, and it can be circular, rectangular, rounded rectangular, ellipsoid, conical, curved inverted conica, angular, truncated inverted conical, square, or rectangular. It usually has features of geometric or figurative motifs that allude to the flow of water or crops.
tortera grande
Large whorl with a larger hole that can measure up 8 mm, to produce thick threads in larger quantities.
tortera mediana
Medium sized whorl with a medium sized hole for producing medium threads in medium quantities.
tortera pequeña
Small whorl with a small hole to produce fine threads in small quantities.
tortera plana
Flat spindle disc which makes the thread turn 'from above' the whorl. This type of whorl is especially associated with spinning camelid wool and is identiifed with teh highlands. In this case its alternative name in Aymara is t'arwa phiraru (fibre whorl).
tortera redondeada
Flat spindle disc which make the thread spin 'from below' the whorl. This type of whorl is used especially for cotton spinning, and these whorls are associated with places where cotton is produced, in the valleys and lowlands. Hence, its alternative name in Aymara is alwurun phiraru.
Tradición Tierras altas-Azapa-Charcollo
Textile style that brings together elements of the techniques and iconography of the populations of the valley of Azapa and those of the mountains of Arica during the Middle Horizon.
Tradición Tierras altas-Cabuza
Textile style connected to the Cabuza culture of the interior of Arica during the Middle Horizon.
Tradición Tierras altas-Tiwanaku
Tiwanaku textile style woven on the Altiplano. It belongs to the Middle Horizon.
Tradición Tierras altas-Tiwanaku provincial
Tiwanaku textile style woven on the Altiplano which incorporates local elements. It belongs to the Middle Horizon.
Tradición Tierras altas-Valles occidentales Cabuza-Maytas-Tiwanaku
Hybrid textile style that icorporates the techniques and iconography of the Cabuza, Tiwanaku and Maytas groups, giving place to a relation with Maytas-Chiribaya during the Late Intermediate period.
Tradición valluno-atacameña
Widely distributed textile tradition in the south of Bolivia, Atacama and even the Argentine north west. It is characterised by warp face weaves and the use of transposed warps.
tráfico ilícito
According the 1970 UNESCO Convention, illicit traffic includes the illicit import, export and transfer of ownership of cultural property.
traje femenino
The set of garments that constitutes female attire, comprising the acso and its colonial derivations such as the almilla and the ñañaca.
Use of textiles in transactions of exchange or barter to obtain products, e.g. in the traditional journeys of llama caravans to the valleys to obtain valley products.
transformación de fibra
Process by which raw animal fibre like fleece is converted into the raw material for textile production by spinning it into thread.
transformación de materia prima
Process by which a natural resource for textile production is turned into raw material, e.g. raw wool into thread.
transformación de tinte
Process by which a natural resource for textile production is turned into raw material, e.g. pounding dye plants to concentrate the dye.
transformaciones en técnicas y estructuras
Moments of transformation of textile structures and techniques of a specific region, through internal or external influences.
In the early Colonial period, cloth usually made of cotton or camelid fibre, that was used to apply dye directly to the surface of a fabric, or, in bundle or reserve dyeing techniques, to fasten together certain areas of the hanks so that they did not receive the dye. Nowadays industrially made cloths are used for the same purpose.
First stage in Andean textile learning, so-called because of the braid produced (Aym. tirinsa, Qu. watu or jakima) which is made by girls between 5 and 12 years old. The content includes learning palin weave (Aym. ina sawu), complementary or simple ladder technique with colour by row (patapata) and ladder technique of intercalated colour (ina k'uthu). The equivalent stage in Quechua is called jáquima (jakima).
Weave elaborated in non-rectilinear warp face, set up on a simple pole loom, and then elaborated by hand through elements that interlace obliquely. The emphasis on the diagonal axis in crossed warp technique with 1 weft in its construction is expressed in the motives of woven diamonds and zigzags.
Weave elaborated in plaiting technique, in which a single set of elements is manipulated in patterns of oblique interlacing.
Use of textile in barter transactions to obtain other products, e.g. in traditional journeys by llama caravans to the valleys to obtain their products.
Woman's accessory made in sheep or camelid wool, as woven strings with bobbles at the ends or other type of decoration; it is worn to decorate women's plaits.
Textile style connected with the Tumilaca groups who form at the fall of Tiwanaku on the coast and in the mountains in the south of Peru. Characterised by warp face cloths.
Instrument made out of a thread knotted at both ends used to i) measure the main dimensions (length and breadth) of the textile being woven on the loom and ii) to measure the cloth when it is finished.
Textile style of the Tupuraya culture of the Inter-Andean valleys of central Bolivia during the Late Formative. They include plain textiles in warp face with borders of bright colours, like blue, light blue, shades of red, green and yello that give rise to the iconography typical of this culture.
turbante de hilados
Type of headware, made from a sort of long sash which is wrapped round in the form of a spiral to cover the head; it is believed that the way of putting it on the head, colour, accessories and other features vary from group to group.