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aqllawasi (qu.)
During the Inca period, the house of women chosen from the provinces to specialise in textile and other activities, whose textile production was destined to be used according to state interests in religion and in the presentation of textile gifts to allies.
Arcaico Medio (6000-4000 a.C.)
Period when groups of hunters and gatherers develop economies and forms of subsistence adapted to their geographical environment, which is reflected in their tools and material culture.
Arcaico Tardío (4000-1800 a.C.)
Period when groups of hunters and gatherers develop economies and forms of subsistence adapted to their geographical environment, which is reflected in their tools and material culture. There are tendencies to form more complex social structures, sedentary societies and the development of agriculture and lifestock raising.
Arcaico Temprano (8000-6000 a.C.)
Period with groups of hunter-gatherers during the Holocene. They are societies that adapt to new conditions of life developing specific economies and technologies according to the regions they inhabit.
armado del telar
Process of setting up the loom and its tackle to then apply various processes of elaboration of textile products, in warping, wefting and finishing. It consists principally of setting up the solid components of the loom (poles and paling) and the crossbeams.
Woollen or metal accessory worn on the wrist or ankle.
asociación textil
Organisational form of textile production comprising male and female members of an institutional agency.
Regional style of textile that especially uses warpfaced cloths with stripes and transposed warps.
Properties of materials referred to, such as form, use-function, materiality, context, significance. These properties receive different evaluations depending on the context in which they are evaluated.
Depending on the sort of cultural heritage and its cultural context, one can estimate that a good satisfies conditions of authenticity if its cultural value (as recognised by the criteria for its proposed inscription/inclusion in the List of World Heritage) is expressed in a reliable and credible form through different attributes such as : i) form and design; ii) materials and substance; iii) use and function; iv) traditions; v) locality and environment; vi) language and other forms of intangible culture; vii) spirit and sensibility; viii) other internal and external factors. The capacity to understand the ascribed value depends on the degree of credibility or veracity granted to the information sources about this value. Knowing and understanding these sources of information are the basic requirements for evaluating every aspect of authenticity. Judgements about the value ascribed to cultural heritage and the credibility of the information sources can differ from culture to culture and even within the same culture. The respect owing to all cultures demands that cultural heritage be studied and judged basically within the cultural contexts to which it belongs.
autoridades de enseñanza
Group of textile specialists in the community or modern institution with the responsibility of teaching others the tasks involved in textile practices.
A long, narrow band made out of fibre, thread or other material.
banda cefálica tipo turbante
Head band made up of bands of fabric like a turban.
Rustic fabric introduced by the Spaniards and made on a vertical or pedal operated Spanish loom, whose weft and warp have a balanced relationship. Usually of sheep wool.
bienes culturales muebles
Movable objects that are the expression or testimony of human creation or the evolution of nature and that have an archaelogical, historical, artistic, scientific or technical value, in particular those that belong to the following categories: I) the product of excavations on land or under water; ii) ancient objects such as instruments, pottery, inscriptions, coins stamps, jewels, arms and funerary remains, especially mummies; iii) elements from the dismanteling of historic monuments; iv) materials of anthropological and ethnological interest; v) objects that refer to history, the history of science and technology; social and military history as well as the life of the people and their leading national thinkers, scientists and artists and the events of national importance; vi) objects of artistic interest such as paintings and drawings made entirely by hand on whatever base and in all types of material (excluding industrial drawings and manufactured articles decorated by hand) original prints; posters and photographs; works of art and artesanal production made with materials like glass, pottery, metal, wood;.vii) manuscripts and codices, books, documents or publications of special interest; viii) objects of numismatic interest (coins and medals) or philatelic interest such as stamps; ix) documents including recordings of texts, maps and other materials, photographs and films, sound recordings and machine readable documents; x) furniture, tapestries, carpets, clothing and musical instruments; xi) botanical or geological specimens.
Figurative geometrical motif (ina apsu) that consists of a 'V' or chevron form, generally repeated sequentially vertically in a band of design and alternating colour. Usually presents seeds as an attribute. It is oberved in archaeological textiles of faz de urdimbre from the northern and central coasts of Peru in the Late Intermediate Period and in provinical Inka style on the soujthern coast of Peru. Made with selected and reselected techniques that count by three, 3|3, by four, 4|4, and by basic odd, 1|1, and with a simple double weave technique with 1 weft, and oblique interlacing. It is also found in the technique of plaiting and warp faced tapestry. In ethnographic textiles they are generally elaborated in selected technique with a count by evens (twos), 2|2, by basic odd, 1|1, by derived odd, 2|1, in reselected technique by quantity counting by derived odd 2|1, and in double weave. The significance of the motif often has feminine connotations.
Girl's cap, knitted entirely in one piece, with a flap on the front part, like the dried nose of a pig, which, according to local beliefs, protects the child from harm and illness.
Modern item of women's clothing, covering the upper part of the body, made initially from baize by hand and by men: it has a loose and wide style, similar to almilla. Nowadays it is made out of cloth and in general has the same characteristics.
Woollen hat that is round and flat, generally without a peak, can present two extensions on each side on the upper part, like ear flaps, woven in the form of a tube.
Container woven from wool, of different sizes and forms and with specific purposes: comprises the everyday bag and the bag.
bolsa agropastoril
Woven sack, made in one rectangular piece, folded and stitched along the sides; it is made of natural colours and its design is composed of larger strips with smaller ones around the central vertical axis of the bag, as opposed to ritual bags or those for coca leaves in which another design scheme, often more figurative, predominates: it comprises larger, intermediate and smaller versions plus a miniature one.
bolsa ceremonial general
Large, wide bag used as a container for medicinal or ritual instruments.
bolsa ceremonial para llamas
Bag that in its form, colours and motifs has a relation with ceremonial aspects related to camelids - llamas etc.
bolsa ceremonial para maíz
Bag made from woven fibre, in trapezoidal form, with long fringe: in form, colour and motif related to the production of maize.
bolsa cotidiana
Bag that is the smallest of those used domestically or in farming: it presents a combination of strips and is in daily use.
bolsa de implementos alucinógenos
Bag used to hold or contain implements for the preparation and consumption of hallucinogens, often made in tapestry which date to the Tiwanaku period, and according to archaeological finds, its use extends from the region of the eastern valleys to the region around San Pedro de Atacama in the site of Quitor.
bolsa de red
Bag woven in net form that is used for hunting or keeping determinate instruments: it is made out of vegetable or sinuous fibre in interlacing or ringing technique.
bolsa de tipo sobre
Small size ritual bag or pouch like an envelope usually found in funeral belts, used holding coca leaves or other elements that were placed near the dead person or even attached to them.
bolsa en miniatura
Small bag or pouch, made out of camelid wool, approximately 25 mm deep and with a variable width of 12 to 33 mm.
bolsa llana para coca
Bag of plain weave, often of cotton, closed and covered with leaves or feathers and covered in a net. It is possible that this construction expressed the way that the Inkas distributed coca.